Via GAO | August 2018:
There are three categories of nonimmigrant visas for prospective students and exchange visitors. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement administers the Student and Exchange Visitor Program, under which schools are certified for enrollment of foreign students (i.e., F and M visa holders) pursuing academic, vocational, or other nonacademic studies. The Department of State’s Exchange Visitor Program manages the issuance of J visas to exchange visitors with programs for foreign nationals such as teachers, certain scholars, au pairs, camp counselors, and professorial programs. Foreign nationals on F, M, or J visas in the United States are monitored through U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s Student and Exchange Visitor Information System.
- F Student in an academic or language training program and their dependents.
- J Exchange visitor and their dependents.
- M Vocational student or other nonacademic student and their dependents.
Top 5 nationalities (FY 2017): Chinese 19%, Indian 10%, Korean 4%, Vietnamese 4%, Brazilian, 3%