Amb. Prudence Bushnell: Terrorism, Betrayal and Resilience (Book Preview)

 

 

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ADST-DACOR Book Launch: Amb. Prudence Bushnell’s Account of the 1998 U.S. Embassy Bombings

Ambassador Prudence Bushnell’s book, Terrorism, Betrayal, and Resilience: My Story of the 1998 U.S. Embassy Bombings will be available on October 1. On October 2, ADST-DACOR will hold a book launch at the DACOR Bacon House. This is the 65th volume in the ADST-DACOR Diplomats and Diplomacy Series.

Date: October 2
Time: 6:00 pm – 7:30 pm
To RSVP please email: programs@dacorbacon.org if you plan to attend the reception (free of charge)

Via Amazon: On August 7, 1998, three years before President George W. Bush declared the War on Terror, the radical Islamist group al-Qaeda bombed the American embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, where Prudence Bushnell was serving as U.S. ambassador. Terrorism, Betrayal, and Resilience is her account of what happened, how it happened, and its impact twenty years later.

When the bombs went off in Kenya and neighboring Tanzania that day, Congress was in recess and the White House, along with the entire country, was focused on the Monica Lewinsky scandal. Congress held no hearings about the bombings, the national security community held no after-action reviews, and the mandatory Accountability Review Board focused on narrow security issues. Then on September 11, 2001, al-Qaeda attacked the U.S. homeland and the East Africa bombings became little more than an historical footnote.

Terrorism, Betrayal, and Resilience is Bushnell’s account of her quest to understand how these bombings could have happened given the scrutiny bin Laden and his cell in Nairobi had been getting since 1996 from special groups in the National Security Council, the FBI, the CIA, and the NSA. Bushnell tracks national security strategies and assumptions about terrorism and the Muslim world that failed to keep us safe in 1998 and continue unchallenged today. In this hard-hitting, no-holds-barred account she reveals what led to poor decisions in Washington and demonstrates how diplomacy and leadership going forward will be our country’s most potent defense.

“Ambassador Prudence Bushnell is a true professional with the toughness, grit, courage, and compassion that marks the kind of superb leader you want in charge during a crisis. I witnessed her remarkable composure, even when personally injured, and her take-command leadership style. This book is important for many reasons. It vividly presents a profile in courage; an understanding rarely appreciated about our foreign service men and women working in difficult assignments; a set of valuable lessons learned; and a case study in leadership during crisis. Every American should read this book.”—Gen. Anthony C. Zinni, U.S. Marine Corps (Ret.)

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Under Budget Cut Clouds, Tillerson Visits Memorial For @USEmbassyKenya Bombing Victims

Posted: 2:21 am ET

 

On March 11, Secretary Tillerson delivered the following remarks at the Wreath-Laying Ceremony at the August 7th Memorial Park;  in Nairobi, Kenya.

As all of you well know, 1998 terrorists thought they could demoralize and destroy the Kenyan and American people by attacking the U.S. embassy here in Nairobi. Of course, they were wrong. Nearly 20 years later, we meet here to honor those who we lost and those who were injured. Hundreds of lives were taken and hundreds if not a thousand more were changed forever. Some of our current embassy colleagues who survived this tragedy, including Ambassador Godec and his wife Lori and our current locally employed staff at the embassy that day of the bombing, are with us as well. And it’s an honor to meet all of you, and I appreciate you being here.

To the survivors present, please know that the American people remember your service and your sacrifice as well as those who are not with us today and have been forever lost. Our hearts are with the many who lost family, friends, and colleagues on that tragic day.

Today we remember them and their bravery, the compassion, and the sacrifice, as well as many who without hesitation that day and at risk to themselves rushed into action to save lives and help others. We honor those heroes and the courage they displayed as well. They are all examples to us.

As our work continues to end terrorism, those who sought to divide us here have failed. Our commitment to work together as Americans and Kenyans is steadfast, it is enduring, and we will build on the shared values and our shared future, which remains very strong. We will never forget the names on this wall. Thank you.

The FBI says that the investigation continues, with the following fugitives still wanted for their alleged roles in the attacks:

January 1999: Report of the Accountability Review Boards on the Embassy Bombings in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam on August 7, 1998.

As the NYT notes, the Africa Embassy bombings “may have done more to transform the State Department than any other event of the past 50 years.”

It also points a fact that’s not lost on anyone — “Mr. Tillerson has twice proposed slashing the department’s budget to about $35 billion from about $50 billion, saying that doing so would return spending levels to those before the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001.”

And just watch, he won’t stop at his second try.

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US Embassy Kenya’s Local Guards Stage a Demonstration Over “Poor Pay”

Posted: 2:21 am ET
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Kenya’s local media reports that a couple hundred local guards contracted to guard the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya staged a demonstration on Thursday over “poor pay.”  The guards citing the high cost of living in the country reportedly refused to go home after their night duty and demanded that the Aegis/KK Security Kenya’s East Africa Managing Director Nick Arnold address their grievances. Capita FM News said that the guards are asking for a pay increase from their current basic salary of Sh17,000 to Sh38,000 (about $164 to $367 in online forex converter) which they say has not been reviewed for more than a decade.

We understand that the local guard force has between 900-1000 members, and that this dispute has been going on since last month. This contract #SAQMMA17C0012 for a local guard program at US Embassy Nairobi is valued at KES3,837,264,329.27 (or $37M USD) and was awarded on November 23, 2016 to Aegis-KK Security.

The Contractor shall provide the organizational structure, management, and qualified staff at levels adequate to meet or exceed the requirement contained in the Performance Work Statement. The Contractor shall be required to provide services in a manner that prevent loss or injury to U.S. personnel, dependents, property; destruction of assets; to prevent unauthorized access; and deter potential terrorist attacks. Anticipated period of performance is one base year and four one-year options (to be exercised at the sole discretion of the Government).

We should add that in 2016, Canadian security firm GardaWorld International acquired African based KK Security, and incorporated it into its global network. Via Business Daily Africa:

GardaWorld has appointed Nick Arnold as the MD for East Africa. He brings over 20 years experience in Africa and wider Emerging Markets and has held senior management positions in the security industry.  Mr Arnold said GardaWorld’s seeks to grow presence in Africa by extending “our world-class security and protective services to international clients with growing presence on the continent.”

GovConWire notes that Aegis holds positions on DoD’s Reconstruction Security Support Services and the State Department’s potential $10 billion Worldwide Protective Services contract vehicles.

We asked the State Department about the reported new contract with Aegis/Garda, as we were told that the guards think the salary offered them are “peanuts.” We requested the DS bureau for comment and asked what the bureau is doing to ensure security for the mission during the ongoing dispute.

The Bureau of Diplomatic Security politely acknowledged our inquiry but later responded with “Thank you for your query. We are unable to offer any additional comments on this.‎”

This is not the first time that the guards have staged a demonstration or threatened to strike over pay.

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US Embassy Kenya’s Threat Designation Downgraded Just as ISIS Claims Stabbing Attack

Posted: 1:15 am ET
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There was a shooting incident outside the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya on October 27 after a knife-wielding assailant attacked an armed Kenyan police officer guarding an entrance to the embassy.  This is one more reminder that local law enforcement employed by host countries and local embassy guards are in the front line of protecting our missions overseas.  The US Embassy said that no Embassy personnel were involved and no U.S. citizens are known to have been affected by this incident.  The Embassy closed to the public on October 28 for routine consular services but emergency consular services for U.S. citizens remained available.  In its Security Message to U.S. citizens, Embassy Nairobi writes, “We are grateful for the ongoing protection provided by the Kenyan police. We are cooperating with Kenyan authorities on the investigation of the incident on Thursday, October 27 and refer all questions about the investigation to them. We will be open to the public for normal operations on Monday, October 31, 2016.”

 

A quick look at the State Department’s Office of Allowances website indicates that Kenya had zero danger pay in September 2013, when the Westgate mall attack occurred. The website indicates that Kenya has been designated as a 15% danger differential post since June 29, 2014  until October 30, 2016 when the latest data is available online.

However, we understand that Embassy Nairobi has recently been downgraded in threat designation for terrorism which eliminates danger pay. We were reminded that it took 9 months after the Westgate Shopping Mall Attack before any danger pay differential kicked in for U.S. Embassy Nairobi; and this happened while reportedly about a third of the country including several neighborhoods in Nairobi remain red no-go zones for employees posted in Kenya.  The allowances website does not reflect the downgraded status as of yet so we’ll have to wait and see what happens to the mid-November update.

The sad reality is these attacks could happen anywhere.  There were 1,475 attacks in 2016 alone involving 12,897 fatalities around the world.

 

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D/SecState Blinken Swears in Stephen Schwartz, First U.S.Ambassador to Somalia in 25 Years

Posted: 2:54 am ET
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Below is an excerpt from the remarks made by D/Secretary Blinken at the swearing-in ceremony of the new U.S. Ambassador to Somalia, Stephen Schwartz . The ceremony was attended by the ambassador’s family and Ahmed Awad, the ambassador of the Federal Republic of Somalia to the United States.  Ambassador James Keough Bishop (1938–), our last ambassador to Somalia who served in Mogadishu  from September 19, 1990–January 5, 1991 also attended the event according to the transcript.  Via state.gov:

Somalia needs leaders who believe in this future and whose legitimacy to realize it is beyond question. The hope of political stability is ultimately not possible without the assurance of security. We have to continue to degrade al-Shabaab and deny them safe haven in Somalia. As the date of elections approaches, the United States will remain a strong partner to the Somali national security forces and to AMISOM.

It’s precisely because this moment represents so much possibility, so much potential, that President Obama has chosen as his representative a diplomat of unmatched caliber and a public servant of unrivaled heart. Sober and idealistic – (laughter) – is how one of his cousins, who happens to be a good friend of mine, described Steve to me. It was very good to hear that he has at least half the attributes necessary – (laughter) – to be an effective Foreign Service officer and ambassador.

From his first days as a Peace Corps volunteer advising a cooperative in Cameroon through decades of distinguished service in the Foreign Service, Steve has proven that true leadership is equal parts confidence and humility. I know this because we actually dug up a document that he once wrote for his team. It’s called “How to Be a Foreign Service Star.” (Laughter.) Now, to my colleagues who are Foreign Service officers, there’s a lot of very valuable advice here and I commend this to you.
[…]
Today we have with us the flag that flew and the seal that adorned the U.S. Embassy Mogadishu in 1991. While we work to transition or mission from Kenya back to Somalia, it is our sincere hope, Steve, that you will have the opportunity to raise this flag in Mogadishu once again.

Deputy Secretary Blinken Swears in Stephen Schwartz as the New U.S. Ambassador to Somalia Deputy Secretary of State Antony “Tony” Blinken swears in Stephen Schwartz as the new U.S. Ambassador to Somalia in a ceremony at the U.S. Department of State in Washington D.C., on June 27, 2017. [State Department Photo/ Public Domain]

Deputy Secretary of State Antony “Tony” Blinken swears in Stephen Schwartz as the new U.S. Ambassador to Somalia in a ceremony at the U.S. Department of State in Washington D.C., on June 27, 2017. [State Department Photo/ Public Domain]

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Photo of the Day: President Obama Visits the US Embassy Bombing Memorial in Nairobi

Posted: 10:38 am EDT
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US Embassy Kenya: August 7 Memorial Park Gets Back to Back Visitors

Posted: 12:01 am EDT
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Secretary Kerry’s Sri Lanka-Kenya-Djibouti Trip, May 1-5, 2015 (Photos)

Posted: 2:04 am EDT
Updated: May 12, 2015 at 1:25 pm PDT
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Secretary Kerry is traveling to Sri Lanka, Kenya and Djibouti from May 1-5, 2015. He was in Colombo, Sri Lanka, on May 2, his first trip to the country.  Secretary Kerry’s second stop was Nairobi, Kenya on May 3, according to the State Department “to reinforce the importance of our strong bilateral relationship.”  He will reportedly discuss a range of issues including security cooperation — particularly in light of the recent tragic attack at Garissa University College – refugee assistance, trade, and biodiversity.  On May 5, Secretary will travel to Djibouti, Djibouti.  He will meet high-level leaders to discuss our bilateral cooperation and their support to evacuation efforts from Yemen. He will also visit with U.S. military personnel at Camp Lemonnier.  This is the first time that a sitting Secretary of State will visit Djibouti.

Colombo, Sri Lanka

Secretary Kerry Walks With Monk In Processional to Kelaniya Temple in Colombo  U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry walks with a monk in a processional to the Kelaniya Temple in Colombo, Sri Lanka on May 2, 2015. [State Department Photo/Public Domain]

Secretary Kerry Walks With Monk In Processional to Kelaniya Temple in Colombo
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry walks with a monk in a processional to the Kelaniya Temple in Colombo, Sri Lanka on May 2, 2015. [State Department Photo/Public Domain]

Secretary Kerry Salutes Longtime Embassy Sri Lanka Worker During Employee Meet-and-Greet in Colombo  U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry salutes a longtime Embassy employee who has worked on behalf of the United States for over 30 years as he addressed employees and family members from U.S. Embassy Sri Lanka on May 3, 2015, in Colombo, Sri Lanka. [State Department Photo/Public Domain]

Secretary Kerry Salutes Longtime Embassy Sri Lanka Worker During Employee Meet-and-Greet in Colombo
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry salutes a longtime Embassy employee who has worked on behalf of the United States for over 30 years as he addressed employees and family members from U.S. Embassy Sri Lanka on May 3, 2015, in Colombo, Sri Lanka. [State Department Photo/Public Domain]

Nairobi, Kenya

Secretary Kerry Poses for a Photo with a Baby Elephant at the Sheldrick Elephant Orphanage  U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry poses for a photo with a baby elephant at the Sheldrick Elephant Orphanage in Nairobi National Park in Nairobi, Kenya, on May 3, 2015, following a wildlife tour of the Park and before a series of government meetings. [State Department Photo/Public Domain]

Secretary Kerry Poses for a Photo with a Baby Elephant at the Sheldrick Elephant Orphanage
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry poses for a photo with a baby elephant at the Sheldrick Elephant Orphanage in Nairobi National Park in Nairobi, Kenya, on May 3, 2015, following a wildlife tour of the Park and before a series of government meetings. [State Department Photo/Public Domain]

Secretary Kerry Feeds a Baby Elephant at the Sheldrick Elephant Orphanage in Nairobi  U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry feeds a baby elephant at the Sheldrick Elephant Orphanage in Nairobi National Park in Nairobi, Kenya, on May 3, 2015, following a wildlife tour of the Park and before a series of government meetings. [State Department Photo/Public Domain]

Secretary Kerry Feeds a Baby Elephant at the Sheldrick Elephant Orphanage in Nairobi
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry feeds a baby elephant at the Sheldrick Elephant Orphanage in Nairobi National Park in Nairobi, Kenya, on May 3, 2015, following a wildlife tour of the Park and before a series of government meetings. [State Department Photo/Public Domain]

Photos from the trip are available here.  We will add photos from the Djibouti stop when they become available.  A couple of pics from Djibouti:
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President Obama Nominates FSO Katherine S. Dhanani as First Ambassador to Somalia Since 1991

Posted: 18:17 EST
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We have not seen the official announcement from the WH yet, but on February 24, Secretary Kerry released the following statement on the nomination of FSO Katherine S. Dhanani to serve as the first United States Ambassador to Somalia since 1991:

President Obama, today, nominated Katherine S. Dhanani to serve as the first United States Ambassador to Somalia since 1991. This historic nomination signals the deepening relationship between the United States and Somalia. It also allows us to mark the progress of the Somali people toward emerging from decades of conflict. Somalia has considerable work ahead to complete its transition to a peaceful, democratic, and prosperous nation. The United States is committed to supporting Somalia on this journey as a steadfast partner. If confirmed, the Ambassador will lead the U.S. Mission to Somalia, currently based at the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. As security conditions permit, we look forward to increasing our diplomatic presence in Somalia and eventually reopening the .

Traditional Hyderabadi marfa drum beaters await the arrival of Consul General Katherine Dhanani at the Pista House, Charminar. (Photo by USCG Hyderabad)

Traditional Hyderabadi marfa drum beaters await the arrival of Consul General Katherine Dhanani at the Pista House, Charminar.
(Photo by USCG Hyderabad)

According to her online bio, Ms. Dhanani succeeded Cornelis M. Keur as U.S. Consul General in Hyderabad and assumed charge of post in  September 2010. She has been a foreign service officer since 1990 and has previously served at US embassies in Georgetown, Guyana, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, Mexico City, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lusaka,Zambia and Libreville,Gabon. She was also deputy chief of mission at the US Embassy in Harare.  She is a trained economist from the Kenyon College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She taught economics at the Grinnel College before joining the U.S. Foreign Service. During her tenure in Hyderabad, she blogged at A Diplomat in the Deccan.

Via state.gov

Via state.gov

Except for a Virtual Presence Post, the United States has no formal diplomatic presence in Somalia.  The most recent Travel Warning for Somalia last updated in October 2014,  recommends that U.S. citizens avoid all travel to Somalia.

Kidnapping, bombings, murder, illegal roadblocks, banditry, and other violent incidents and threats to U.S. citizens and other foreign nationals can occur in any region of Somalia. 
[…]
While some parts of south/central Somalia are now under Somali government control with the military support of African Union forces, al-Shabaab has demonstrated the capability to carry out attacks in government-controlled territory with particular emphasis on targeting government facilities, foreign delegations’ facilities and movements, and commercial establishments frequented by government officials, foreign nationals, and the Somali diaspora.  In February 2012, al-Shabaab announced that it had merged with Al-Qaida.

The current Ambassador to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, James C. Swan previously served as the United States Special Representative for Somalia from August 2011 to July 2013, leading U.S. diplomatic, security, and stabilization initiatives that culminated in U.S. recognition of a Somali government for the first time in more than two decades.  In August 2013, James P. McAnulty was appointed his successor as Special Representative for Somalia.

The last Senate-confirmed ambassador to Somalia according to history.state.gov was James Keough Bishop (1938-) who was appointed on June 27, 1990. The appointment was terminated when the Embassy closed on January 5, 1991.

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