Officially In: Ambassador Anne E. Derse to Vilnius

Map from CIA World Factbook

On June 4th, President Obama announced his intent to nominate Ambassador Anne Derse to be Ambassador to the Republic of Lithuania.

Anne Derse is a career member of the Senior Foreign Service since 1981 and has served as Ambassador to the Republic of Azerbaijan since May 2006. As Director for Biodefense Policy at the Homeland Security Council (HSC) 2005-2006, Anne Derse helped develop the Implementation Plan for the U.S. National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza. Prior to that, She helped establish the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad in 2004-2005 as Minister Counselor for Economic Affairs. Ms. Derse worked as Executive Assistant in the Department of State’s Under Secretary for Economic, Business and Agricultural Affairs from 2003-2004. As Minister Counselor for Economic Affairs at the U.S. Mission to the European Union (USEU) from 1999 to 2003, she led the USEU team managing U.S.-EU economic relations. She served as U.S. Commissioner on the Tripartite Gold Commission, adjudicating sovereign claims for gold seized by the Nazis and recovered by the Allies after World War II, while assigned as Economic Counselor at the U.S. Embassy in Brussels 1997-1999.

Ms. Derse helped coordinate United States’ participation in the 1996 APEC Summit as Economic Counselor and Deputy Counselor at the U.S. Embassy in the Philippines 1995-1997. She served as Special Assistant for Asian Affairs to State’s Under Secretary for Economic, Business and Agricultural Affairs from 1993 to 1995. As Finance and Development officer and Deputy Economic Counselor in Korea 1989-1993, she helped establish the Presidents’ Economic Initiative, the Dialogue for Economic Cooperation and Treasury-Ministry of Finance Financial Policy Talks. She also served as trade officer in Singapore 1985-1988, staff assistant to the Counselor of the Department of State 1983-84, and as Vice Consul in Trinidad and Tobago 1981-1983.

Ms. Derse received an MA from Johns Hopkins University and a BA from Macalester College.

* * *

Ambassador Derse
is currently the US Ambassador to Azerbaijan. If confirmed, she would succeed career diplomat, John A. Cloud, Jr. as US Ambassador to Vilnius. She is a Career Member of the Senior Foreign Service, Class of Minister Counselor.

Related Item:
President Obama Announces Intent to Nominate Key Administration Posts, 6-4-09

Officially In: Kenneth H. Merten to Port-Au-Prince

Map from CIA World Factbook

On June 4th, President Obama announced his intent to nominate Kenneth H. Merten to be Ambassador to the Republic of Haiti. Official bio released by the WH below:

Kenneth Merten currently serves as Deputy Executive Secretary at the Department of State. A career Foreign Service Officer, he joined the Foreign Service in 1987. His previous overseas diplomatic assignments include Economic Counselor in Paris, France, Economic Section Chief, Port-au-Prince, Haiti, Economic Officer at the U.S. Mission to the European Union, in Brussels, Belgium, Economic Officer in Bonn, Germany and Vice Consul in Port-au-Prince.

Mr. Merten’s Washington assignments include two tours in the State Department Operations Center and service in the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs and on the Cuba Desk, as well as a year as Special Assistant to the Special Advisors on Haiti.

Mr. Merten holds a B.A. from Miami University in Ohio, and a Masters in Public Administration from American University. Studies at the Université d’Aix-Marseille in France and at Karl Franzens Universität in Austria complement his other academic work.

* * *
Mr. Merten is a Career Member of the Senior Foreign Service. If confirmed, he would succeed career diplomat, Janet Sanderson.
Related Post: Updated 1/15/2010

Officially In: Ambassador Patricia Moller to Conakry

Map from CIA World Factbook

On June 4th, President Obama announced his intent to nominate Ambassador Patricia N. Moller to be Ambassador to the Republic of Guinea. Official bio released by the WH below:

Ambassador Patricia Moller, a member of the Foreign Service since 1987, has served as U.S. Ambassador to Burundi since 2006. In the course of her career Ambassador Moller has served in five other overseas locations including in Munich, Germany, Chennai, India, Belgrade, Serbia, Yerevan, Armenia, and Tbilisi, Georgia. From 1991 – 1996 in Washington DC, she served first as a Watch Officer, then as Staff Aid to the Assistant Secretary for Intelligence and Research, and later as Vietnam Desk Officer bilateral negotiations to reestablish diplomatic ties between the two countries. From 1996 to 1999, she was assigned to Belgrade, Serbia, departing when NATO bombing of the country began. From 2000 to 2002, she served as Deputy Chief of Mission in Yerevan, Armenia and from 2002 to 2005 as Deputy Chief of Mission in Tbilisi, Georgia.

Ambassador Moller has three times received the Department’s Superior Honor Award and three times been granted a Senior Foreign Service Performance Award. Ambassador Moller has a BA from the University of Tampa.

* * *

Ambassador Moller is currently the US Ambassador to Burundi. She is a Career Member of the Senior Foreign Service, Class of Counselor. She would succeed Philip Carter, III , a career diplomat who was appointed US Ambassador from 2007 -2008. The US Embassy in Conakry is currently headed by retired member of the Senior Foreign Service, Elizabeth Raspolic as Chargé d’Affaires, a.i., to the Republic of Guinea.

Related Item:
President Obama Announces Intent to Nominate Key Administration Posts, 6-4-09

Officially In: Donald Gips to Pretoria

Map from CIA World Factbook

On June 4th, President Obama announced his intent to nominate Donald Gips to be Ambassador to the Republic of South Africa. Official bio released by the WH below:

Donald Gips is currently the Assistant to the President and Director for Presidential Personnel. Prior to serving in the White House, Gips helped lead then President-elect Obama’s Presidential Transition Team as a Co-Chair for the Agency Review team.

From 1998-2008, Gips was Group Vice President of Global Corporate Development for Level 3 Communications, where he led merger and acquisition efforts and was the Chief Strategy Officer. Gips previously served in the White House as Chief Domestic Policy Advisor to Vice President Al Gore. Mr. Gips also was Chief of the International Bureau at the Federal Communications Commission where he was responsible for the WTO negotiations and all spectrum policy, and helped launch the Americorps Program at the Corporation for National Service. Before entering government, he was an Executive Manager at McKinsey & Company.

Gips his MBA from the Yale School of Management and received his undergraduate degree from Harvard University.

* * *


Gips has donated more than $64,000 to politicians since 1999, almost all of it to Democrats (He gave $500 to Sen. Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, in 2003). Gips donated the maximum allowable to Barack Obama in 2008, and also donated $2,000 to him in 2004.(23) He was one of Obama’s top bundlers during the presidential campaign, raising more than $500,000 for the 2008 campaign.(24)

If confirmed, Mr. Gips would replace Eric M. Bost who was appointed US Ambassador to South Africa during President Bush’s second term.

Related Item:
President Obama Announces Intent to Nominate Key Administration Posts, 6-4-09

Officially In: Nicole A. Avant to the Bahamas

Map of the Bahamas show NassauImage via Wikipedia

On June 4th, President Obama announced his intent to nominate Nicole A. Avant to be Ambassador to the Commonwealth of the Bahamas. Official bio released by the WH below:

Ms. Avant serves as Vice President of Interior Music and Avant Garde Music Publishing. A business woman, philanthropist and activist, she has been recognized for her tireless efforts to mobilize the younger generation towards greater charitable and political involvement. She has worked as an academic counselor at The Neighborhood Academic Initiative, a USC mentorship program for high school students.

Ms. Avant serves as a board member for the Bogart Pediatric Cancer Research Program, the Center for American Progress and Best Buddies, and was named one of the American Cancer Society Next Generation Leaders in 2007.

* * * of the Center for Responsible Politics has named Nicole Avant one of President Obama’s bundlers who raised a minimum of $500,000 (bundlers are people with friends in high places who, after bumping against personal contribution limits, turn to those friends, associates, and, well, anyone who’s willing to give, and deliver the checks to the candidate in one big “bundle.”)

If confirmed, Ms. Avant would replace Bush Ranger, Ned Siegel, who was appointed the 12th US Ambassador to the Commonwealth during President Bush’s second term.

Update: 6/18/09: A reader wrote to say this was not a photo of the US Embassy in Nassau. (?) This was from an OIG Report Highlights a few years back. An OBO presentation I found online for the AGC FedCon did not list NEC Nassau until the FY18 Capital Security Program, so they must still be in their old building. Please feel free to add a comment if you have some additional info.

Update 8/12/09: A second reader wrote about that US Embassy Nassau photo, so I’ve deleted that.

Related Item:

President Obama Announces Intent to Nominate Key Administration Posts, 6-4-09

Officially In: Brig. General James B. Smith to Riyadh

Photo from Published State/OIG Report

On June 4th, President Obama announced his intent to nominate Brigadier General James B. Smith to be Ambassador to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Official bio released by the White House below:

Brigadier General Smith (USAF, Ret.) is International Business Development Executive, Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems. Previous assignments at Raytheon include Vice President of Government Business in Wichita, Kansas, and Vice President of Precision Engagement in Tucson, Arizona. Prior to joining Raytheon, he was director of Navy C2 programs for Lockheed Martin Mission Systems.

Gen. Smith served as deputy commander at the Joint Warfighting Center of the U.S. Joint Forces Command in Suffolk, Virginia, where he was responsible for managing the joint force exercise and training development program. General Smith’s distinguished aviation career includes combat sorties during Desert Storm. He commanded the 94th Tactical Fighter Squadron and 325th Operations Group. He served as the CSAF chair at the National War College and as Vice Director of Operations for the North American Air Defense Command. Gen. Smith previously served as commander of the 18th Wing at Kadena Air Base in Japan.

He holds a Bachelor’s degree in military history from the U.S. Air Force Academy and a Master’s degree in history from Indiana University. Gen. Smith is a distinguished graduate of the Naval War College, the Air Command and Staff College and the National War College.

* * *

Gen. Smith was one of the flag officers who endorsed then Senator Obama in March 2008: “I spent a career involved in coalition warfare, and I am keenly aware of the importance of working with allies,” said Brigadier General (Ret.) James Smith (USAF). “Senator Obama brings a powerful approach to dealing with national security challenges by truly leveraging multinational relationships. He brings a new face of America to the rest of the world.”

If confirmed, Gen. Smith would replace Ford M. Fraker, who was appointed US Ambassador during President Bush’s second term.

Related Items:

Officially In: David Jacobson to Ottawa

US Embassy Ottawa, Canada
Photo from Published State/OIG Report

On June 4th, President Obama announced his intent to nominate David Jacobson to be Ambassador to Canada. Official bio released by the WH below:

Mr. Jacobson is currently serving as Special Assistant to the President for Presidential Personnel. Prior to serving in the White House, Mr. Jacobson spent 30 years gaining expertise in the areas of complex commercial, class action, securities, insurance and business litigation as a partner at the law firm Sonnenschein, Nath & Rosenthal LLP. While working as a partner at Sonnenschien, Mr. Jacobson also founded AtomWorks, an organization to bring together corporate, civic and academic leaders in order to foster nanotechnology in the Midwest. He also served as a member of CEOs for Cities, a national bipartisan alliance of 75 mayors, corporate executives, university presidents and nonprofit leaders organized to advance the economic competitiveness of cities.

Mr. Jacobson received a J.D. from Georgetown University Law Center and was the Administrative Editor of the Georgetown Law Journal. He received his B.A. from Johns Hopkins University.

* * * of the Center for Responsible Politics has named David Jacobson one of President Obama’s bundlers who raised between $50,000-$100,000 (bundlers are people with friends in high places who, after bumping against personal contribution limits, turn to those friends, associates, and, well, anyone who’s willing to give, and deliver the checks to the candidate in one big “bundle.”)

If confirmed, Mr. Jacobson would replace, David Wilkins who was appointed 28th US Ambassador to Canada during Bush’s second term. Mr. Wilkins departed post
the day before Obama’s inauguration in January.

Related Item:
President Obama Announces Intent to Nominate Key Administration Posts, 6-4-09

Officially In: Carlos Pascual to Mexico City

On June 4th, President Obama announced his intent to nominate Carlos Pascual to be Ambassador to Mexico. Official bio released by the WH below:

Mr. Carlos Pascual is vice president and director of the Foreign Policy Program at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC where he has overseen applied research programs on Latin America, China, Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Mr. Pascual directed a major global initiative on transnational threats, developing proposals to build a new alignment of global powers that would increase responsibility and accountability for emerging economies in international security and multilateral bodies.

Before joining Brookings, he was a career Foreign Service Officer, serving in government for 23 years. Mr. Pascual served as the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization at the US Department of State. Prior to that, he was the Coordinator for US Assistance to Europe and Eurasia. Mr. Pascual served as U.S. ambassador to Ukraine from October 2000 until August 2003. He formerly served as a special assistant to President Clinton and National Security Council senior director for Russia, Ukraine, and Eurasia. Mr. Pascual was Deputy Assistant Administrator in USAID for Europe and Eurasia, guiding the development of programs in Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. He served with USAID in Sudan, South Africa and Mozambique.

He received an M.P.P. from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and a B.A. from Stanford University.

* * *


“Pascual has ties to several members of the Obama administration from his time at Brookings and in the Clinton administration. He worked at Brookings with U.N. Ambassador Susan E. Rice, who has also studied failed states. He served on the National Security Council with Philip Gordon, President Barack Obama’s nominee for assistant secretary of State for Europe and Eurasian Affairs.”

If confirmed, Mr. Pascual would replace Tony Garza, Jr. who was appointed US Ambassador to Mexico by President Bush from 2002-2009.

Related Item:
President Obama Announces Intent to Nominate Key Administration Posts, 6-4-09

The State Department’s Digital Diplomacy Footprint

Public Diplomacy 2.0

Image Credit: Markus Angermeier (under cca-sa2.5)

What criteria should be used to guide decisions regarding the new approach of using Web 2.0 technology to public diplomacy?

This is an important question to address given the limited resources available to the State Department’s public diplomacy operations in 309 US missions and US virtual presence posts overseas. The new Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs mentioned the combined use of traditional media with new social media, like Facebook, Twitter and online videos (possibly YouTube, as State already has an existing channel). “The culmination of this effort will be a virtual presence that is engaged in a global dialogue, 24 hours a day, seven days a week, in all corners of the world.”

I thought this sounds really exciting; but on second thought, I wonder if this is really a realistic approach. First, let’s take a look at State’s digital diplomacy footprint.

The State Department has presence in the following social media, DipNote Blog, Facebook (6,905 fans), YouTube, Flickr, and Twitter (5,057 followers). In addition, it has a multimedia center which hosts its own videos, and photo gallery, and some 30 RSS feeds for subscription. There is no aggregated feed available for all these feeds. I imagine that all of the above are run out of the Public Affairs (PA) shop. These are all geared primarily toward an American audience.

PA is just one of the bureaus under the Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs (aka “R”); the other two are Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) and International Information Programs (IIP). ECA has a social networking site called Exchange Connect with 10,000 members. The other bureau IPP, is home to the Digital Outreach Team (DOT), a ten-person group that actively engages with Arabic, Persian and Urdu language Internet sites, including on blogs, news sites and discussion forums. IPP has, its own Facebook (160 members) and Twitter page (993 followers). It also runs CO.NX (6,105 members) which allows LIVE multimedia webchats. The ECA and IPP bureaus are geared primarily toward a foreign audience.

Dizzy yet? There’s more.

Let’s look closely at the State Department’s Facebook presence. Its Facebook page has 6,775 fans. There is also Consular Affairs with 520 fans. This one had exactly three brief posts, two in February and one in April. One of the fans wrote: No one has written anything here since April, 2008. Wow, how exciting! Another one writes: Why be a fan of CA on FB?… The State Department Passport page has 248 fans. Owner posted the following message:

“We’re hoping that fans can upload some interesting stories and pictures they have that include passports in them. Similar to the projects where a gnome or teddy bear travels around the world, we’re looking for photos of American Citizens and their passports traveling around the world!” (Um, why?)

There were posts from July to September 2008, then nothing. Some folks in South Korea took pity and uploaded four photos of US passports held up against the South Korean backdrop. That’s it!

There is another page called Careers (but you have to join/sign in to read what is posted online), and there are three groups:

Careers in Foreign Affairs (Group) 4,343 members
Civilian Response Corps (Group) 176 members
Diplomatic Security (Group) 403 members

That’s all I’ve been able to dig up on the US-side footprint. I’m sure I’ve missed someone somewhere.

Scoble’s Social Media Starfish
Image credit: dbarefoot

Social Media: The Long Global Stretch

Overseas, the State Department has 173 posts with resident ambassadors (some ambassadors are accredited to additional posts like the one in Sri Lanka who’s also accredited to the Maldives). In addition, there are consulates, virtual presence posts (VPPs), liaison offices and other presence overseas.

I started looking at our most important posts in terms of perceived engagement need and size. Internet statistics referred to here are all derived from the Internet World Stats:

AFGHANISTAN:US Embassy Kabul is on Facebook; its Facebook page is in English with selected translations; it has 494 fans. Post is also on Twitter and Flickr. They have regular up-to-date posts. Its website is not updated as quickly as its social media sites, but I am presuming that the website is run by the information management arm, and the social media sites are run by the public diplomacy shop of the embassy. But between the three social media sites, you generally get a sense, limited it may be, of what Ambassador Eikenberry and his staff are doing in Afghanistan. Although its Internet Penetration Rate (the percentage of the total population of a given country or region that uses the Internet) is small at 1.5%, it had an internet user growth of 49,900.0 %. Yes, really!

Among the missions I have reviewed so far, Afghanistan has one of the most put together operation in terms of options provided, usability and timeliness and relevancy of postings.

Population ( 2008 Est.): 32,738,376

Internet Users (Year 2000): 1,000

Internet Users (Latest Data): 500,000

Penetration (% of Population): 1.5 %

User Growth (2000-2008 ): 49,900.0 %

IRAQ: US Embassy Baghdad has no social media sites. Its website has dead links, current items are posted in Archives, there is no organized photo gallery, and updates are sporadic. Former Ambassador Crocker’s remarks, statements and news are still posted under Embassy News. Ambassador Hill’s items have been filed under the Ambassador’s Archive. (Huh? Can you see me scratching my noggin here?)

Considering that for the last eight years, Iraq has been our most important foreign policy engagement, it is appalling to see its website functions literary like a brick wall online. When US Embassy Baghdad employees were killed by IED on May 25, Ambassador Hill’s May 26 statement did not get posted online until the 27th. I know because I was looking for it. Two days is a long time online, folks. And even as we now know, with a couple clicks of a mouse, the other two unnamed individuals who perished in that attack, the original statement was never revised. Are they really that busy over there, to do a revised statement of our dead?

I don’t know. No one knows and there’s no way to tell because well– they’ve got a brick wall online. Which lead others to ask about the US Embassy Baghdad, “What exactly are they doing?” If we go by the embassy’s press releases, Ambassador Hill has done exactly two things since his arrival in Baghdad: attended the completion of the U.S.-funded Al-Qudas Power Plant and visited the Iraq National Museum. I’m not sure you can use security as an argument for the limited information online. After all, Afghanistan is also a warzone, and we definitely see Ambassador Eikenberry giving speeches, traveling around, having meetings, etc., etc.

Although one might be tempted to argue that with less than 1% internet penetration rate, it would make no sense to deploy social media options online — Iraq had a user growth rate of 2,100.0 % from 2000-2008. That is nowhere near Afghanistan’s breathtaking number, but look – the absent is always wrong. And a static website with limited usability might as well be absent. Ambassador Adam Ereli is heading the PA shop in Baghdad (unless website has not been updated with info of departure). Guys, surely you can do better than a brick wall?

Population ( 2008 Est.): 28,221,181

Internet Users (Year 2000): 12,500

Internet Users (Latest Data): 275,000

Penetration (% of Population): 1.0 %

User Growth (2000-2008 ): 2,100.0 %

(%) of Table (Middle East): 0.6 %

Broadband Internet data is not available.

EGYPT: US Embassy Cairo does not have its own Facebook page. There is a Facebook page run by Education USA/Study USA-Egypt, with 5,408 fans. Education USA is a global network of more than 450 advising centers supported by the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) at the U.S. Department of State.

US Embassy Cairo does have a Pilot Speakers Program, and Video Clips, but has no links to the Study USA-Egypt page on its website, nor does it have any other social media. I do wonder why it has no social media outreach online. Egypt accounts for 19.4 % of internet users in Africa. That’s the largest percentage of users in the continent. Although its penetration rate is in the low double digits at 12.9%, it also had an internet user growth rate of 2,240.5 % from 2000-2008.

Population ( 2008 Est.): 81,713,517

Internet Users (Year 2000): 450,000

Internet Users (Latest Data): 10,532,400

Penetration (% of Population): 12.9 %

User Growth ( 2000-2008 ): 2,240.5 %

Users % in Africa: 19.4 % (largest % of users in Africa)

: US Mission China includes the Embassy in Beijing, five constituent posts and six virtual presence posts (VPPs). It has no social media of any sort, and half of its webpage is wasted white space. I can’t tell if there are specific restrictions online that apply to this mission (because it’s China and it uses the Great Firewall!). Our digital diplomacy there appears restricted to mostly static website pages that would give anyone a headache, me included; and I generally know my way around these websites.

China has 66,464,000 broadband Internet connections as of Dec 2007. China’s internet users account for close to half the users in all of Asia at 45.3% (followed by Japan at 14.3 % and India at 12.3 %). That’s a large chunk of the online pie. And the US missions are barely there.

Population ( 2008 Est.): 1,330,044,605

Internet Users (Year 2000): 22,500,000

Internet Users (Latest Data): 298,000,000

Penetration (% of Population): 22.4 %

User Growth ( 2000-2008 ): 1,224.4 %

Users (%) in Asia: 45.3 %

: US Mission Mexico is not on Facebook but it does have a US Mission Mexico Blog, in Spanish. The mission includes the US Embassy in Mexico, nine constituent posts (none linked to the mission blog) and two VPPs linked to the blog (one has a Photo Gallery of the area’s local scenes). It has no other social media site. Mexico accounts for the second largest internet users in Latin America at 16.1% (Brazil accounts for 39.8 % of internet users in Lat-Am, followed by Mexico at 16.1 % and Argentina at 11.8 %). It also has an internet penetration rate of 24.9%, slightly higher than the world average.

Population ( 2008 Est.): 109,955,400

Internet Users (Year 2000):

Internet Users (Latest Data): 27,400,000

Penetration (% of Population): 24.9 %

User Growth ( 2000-2008 ): 910.2 %

Users (%) in Latin America: 16.1 %

IRAN: We don’t have a diplomatic presence in Tehran. Initially, I thought well how come we don’t have a VPP there? As far back as 2006, there was a plan for a VPP in Tehran according to this presentation from Thomas Niblock of the eDiplomacy Office. I don’t know if under new management, this would now go forward.

But there are 465,100 Broadband Internet connections in Iran as of Sept 2007. It has 23,000,000 internet users as of Mar 2008 and an internet penetration rate of 34.9%. It ranks second in terms of user growth in the Middle East at 9,100.0 %. It accounts for 50.2 % of all internet users in the region. That’s a significant chunk of the online pie, and the United States is well – absent, in every way.

Population ( 2008 Est.): 65,875,223

Internet Users (Year 2000): 250,000

Internet Users (Latest Data): 23,000,000

Penetration (% of Population): 34.9 %

User Growth (2000-2008 ): 9,100.0 %

User (%) of Table (Middle East): 50.2 %

I find it interesting that although there are multiple sites online, there appears to be no cohesion or central theme in them (besides the fact that they are all distinct parts of the State Department). I kind of expected each site to be the building blocks to a larger whole; but they’re not. You find social media deployed in places where you don’t expect to see it, and missing in places where you expect to see it. You see sites with up-to-date regular posts, and sites with sporadic posts. You see sites with welcome remarks from senior embassy officials, and sites with no such thing. Some sites are also run by Information Resource Centers while others by Public Affairs. Correct me if I’m wrong, but it seems to me as if some of these sites were rolled out off the cuff, with no clear achievable goals and objectives in mind beyond the act of showing up online.

Why is there a separate Facebook page for Passport, when there is Consular Affairs? You’d think that a better community to form would be Americans Abroad or something along those lines for the often misunderstood official services to Americans living and traveling abroad.

How come Exchange Connect and CO.NX are operationally separated instead of working hand in glove? They are both geared toward foreign audiences so why are they not working in collaboration with each other? I know, the answer probably would be – different bureaus, different pots of money. But why does it have to be that way, especially on a social media platform? Does anybody know?

to be continued ….